But this certainly seems a long way around. Ontology is then unavoidably relative, since the stimulatory conditions providing evidence for truth do not determine uniquely how the sentences they confirm should be construed as containing expressions referring to objects. Some have questioned this radical or total form of confirmational holism.
The point concerns the relation between empirical evidence for or against the truth of a sentence and for or against the existence of objects. Before passing away, Quine noted to Morton White, "I do not remember what my illness is called, Althusser or Alzheimer, but since I cannot remember it, it must be Alzheimer.
But we have a stubborn tendency to reify the unrepeated matter by positing an attribute, instead of just talking of words. More controversially, the two conjuncts are meant to be confirmed in equal measure. For these objects individuative terms, e. It can be put into three Anglo-Saxon monosyllables: And how to slice it is what ostension or simple conditioning, however persistently repeated, cannot teach.
There are only the stimulatory conditions that prompt assent to the ex- pression, and the expression itself is not true of anything. In this enumeration I have used the later terminology. Grant that a knowledge of the appropriate stimulatory conditions of a sentence does not settle how to construe the sentence in terms of existence of objects.
The bulk of Science and Metaphysics is devoted to the analysis of mind-perception, thought, intentionality and truth.
The objects may be identified differently -e. Quine concluded his " Two Dogmas of Empiricism " as follows: And there comes yet a sixth phase, when we break through to posits more drastically new still than the objects smaller than the smallest visible speck.
A fourth phase comes with the joining of one general term to another in attributive position. Indeterminacy of translation can be illustrated not only by two speakers of one language, but even by one speaker of a single language.
But any application of the standard is posterior to a decision on what is to count as uniform stimulation. Most of our statements respond thus to across the fabric of intralinguistic associations, even when also directly conditioned to extralinguistic stimuli to some degree.
Ontological relativity in this case makes man the measure of truth, since the truth conditions of a sentence depend on what is the case with respect to the objects it is about, and how these objects are specified hence what can be said to be the case with respect to them is relative to the ontology of the language in which the sentence is formulated.
Rather, they deny that it always spreads its support to the whole of any theory or theoretical framework that entails or probabilistically predicts the evidence. Stimulus meanings can be determined behavioristically by responses of assent and dissent; we can thus link language with reality without facing the problem of establishing a connection between mental contents and the objective conditions that produce them.
I This collection of six essays affords the best general statement by Professor Quine of his philosophy yet to appear between the covers of a single book.
The analysis is set out in a context defined by three ontological doc- trines: This conceptual scheme may well be, however accidental, a happy accident; just as the of electrons would be none the worse for having first occurred to its originator in the course of some absurd dream.
During the academic year —33, he travelled in Europe thanks to a Sheldon fellowship, meeting Polish logicians including Stanislaw Lesniewski and Alfred Tarski and members of the Vienna Circle including Rudolf Carnapas well as the logical positivist A.
Columbia University Press, Harper,pp. This point is not against empiricism; it is a commonplace of behavioral psychology.
One OL consists of statements about persons and Recommended. He r e a h s his well-known thesis that the ontology of a theory is given by the values over which its bound variables range. There is no absolute ontology, of similarities or of anything else. An Intermittently Philosophical Dictionary, he wrote a defense of moral censorship ;  while, in his autobiography, he made some criticisms of American postwar academic culture.
The deterioration of his short-term memory was so severe that he struggled to continue following arguments. But this truism is not what Quine intends. Here we get general terms, each true of each of many objects. These include classes, propositional objects, and attributes, and the latter are infected with the troubles of both classes and propositional objects.
The two persons have different ontologies but, Quine contends, it is senseless to ask which if either has the true ontology.In Ontological Relativity and Other Essays. New York: Columbia University Press () Abstract Epistemology naturalized by WVO Quine Keywords Naturalism Epistemology: Categories Naturalized Epistemology in Epistemology.
W. V. O. Quine in 20th Century Philosophy (categorize this paper)Author: W. V. Quine. Ontological Relativity and Other Essays by W. V.
Quine Columbia University Press New Yor~ 2 Ontological Relativity I I listened to Dewey on Art as Experience when I was a graduate student in the spring of Dewey was then at Harvard as the first William James Lecturer.
Ontological Relativity and Other Essays by W. V.
Quine of Paradox and Other Essays, and had meant to omit it from the present volume. However, Burton Dreben has persuaded me that "Speaking memory of Arnold Isenberg, as is "Ontological Relativity" to the memory of John Dewey.
In philosophy of science, confirmation holism, also called epistemological holism, is the view that no individual statement can be confirmed or disconfirmed by an empirical test, but only a set of statements (a whole theory). It is attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine who motivated his holism through extending Pierre Duhem's problem of underdetermination in physical theory to all knowledge.
The first of these essays contains numerous referenceSžihTff account in the text is perhaps-closest to that of Kurt Baier in The Moral for example, W. V. Quine, Ontological Relativity and Other Essays York, Columbia University Press, ), ch. 5 entitled "Natural Kinds." The Original Position Formal Conditions of Right.
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