Ash and pyroclastics from infant Cascade volcanoes to the east were added to the mix, and the steady collision of the Juan de Fuca tectonic plate with the North American continental shelf forced the mass to rise above sea level and moved the Pacific shoreline west.
Starker also mentions a "a similar wet snow about twenty years previous" to the event that apparently broke the tops and limbs off a number of trees in the Soap Creek area and covered the ground with debris from the breakage. Rivers that enter the Columbia from the south are named Clatsop, Klaskanie, and Clatskanie for the same reason.
These events all contributed to the topography of the Coast Range, directly effecting patterns of human settlement and land use, including fire, from the time of discovery, more than 10, years ago, to the present.
This thesis examines the change in vegetation patterns of the Coast Range of western Oregon see Map 1. Near the end of the decade, probably in orthe first of a century-long series of catastrophic forest fires took place in the region. Until recently, when people began to heat their homes with electricity, steam, coal, and oil instead of Thesis chapter 1 about facebook, and began to use automobiles instead of feeding herds of ungulates for food or transportation, areas of Coast Range settlement were quartered in grasslands, had relatively few trees, and most dead wood was found gathered or stacked for later use in ovens, stoves, or firepits.
Patch burning is defined as having a specific purpose and involving fuels within a bounded area, such as burning an older huckleberry patch, a segment of trail, or a field of weeds. During the same period, the Klamath Mountains in present-day southwest Oregon were steadily eroding, filling the shallow ocean to their north with sediments that would ultimately become the Tyee soils and sandstones of today.
Patterns of burning and wildfire include similarities and differences in sources and locations of ignition; locations and extent of fire boundaries; timing, frequency, seasonality, and intensity of fires; and effects of fire on local human and wildlife populations.
Through the use of maps, tables, eyewitness accounts, drawings, and photographs, this thesis documents the use of fire by American Indian people living in the Oregon Coast Range at the time of contact with white Europeans and Americans in the late s. Tribes and nation names will attempt to use the earliest accepted historical spellings, rather than modernized spellings or European terms.
The fact that people become associated with the rivers and valleys they occupy is demonstrated by the names on the land of the Oregon Coast Range. Landscape patterns, for purposes of this dissertation, are considered at regional hundreds of thousands or millions of acresbasin thousands or tens of thousands of acresand local dozens or hundreds of acres scales.
California condors, grizzly bears, wolves, and whitetail deer gave way to chickens, cattle and swine; fields of camas and tarweed were transformed to corn, potatoes and wheat.
Species are referenced by accepted local names, rather than "common" names e. McLeod, ; Charles Wilkes, have reported similar distributions of people in early historical time; archaeologists e.
Three principal categories of these practices are recognized: A certain amount of history has been written and documented about the Oregon Coast Range "Coast Range" or "the Range" forest fires of ca.
The tribes of coastal Oregon were the victims of some of these fires, having been driven to the waters of the Pacific Ocean to survive. No evidence has been found that is contrary to this assessment, and it is difficult to imagine a circumstance that would allow for much difference.
For the first time ever, firewood was gathered, forests were purposefully fired, and grasslands burned. The environment began to be transformed immediately. It is quite something else again to contend that the Indians used fire systematically to "improve" the forest.
By comparison, very little has been documented regarding the burning practices of late prehistoric and early historical people living in the northern, western, and southern parts of the region see Map 1. Therefore, the topography of an area has a controlling effect on local fire behaviors and helps to define resulting patterns of burned and surviving vegetation.
In this instance, the term "white" is intended to represent people of western European culture, rather than a particular race or skin color. Upland prairies, brakes, berry patches, and grassy balds were heavily used on a seasonal basis, and were connected by a series of ridgeline foot-trails.
Interior forestland trails, prairies, meadows, brakes, and berry patches--created and maintained by fire--were abandoned and began converting to trees. Even fire was affected.In this chapter, both theories are summed up and presented, in order to give the reader a minimum background about the subject of this dissertation.
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CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION: HYPOTHESIS AND SETTING. This thesis addresses the question of whether the use of fire across the landscape by Indian people over the span of + years prior tohad any relationship to a subsequent series of catastrophic forest fires, that lasted until The software architecture framework of Chapter 1 is used to define the architectural elements of REST and examine sample process, connector, and data views of prototypical architectures.